Avian Influenza
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Background information

Minnesota Cooperative Control Program

Modern Disease Control for a Modern Industry


All outbreaks of influenza should be reported immediately to the state veterinarian or other appropriate health authorities.

There are 3 scenarios to consider:

Non H5 or H7 avian influenza
Once non H5 or H7 LPAI is introduced into the poultry industry, control is largely dependent on voluntary, industry efforts since there are no official state eradication programs.

•    Routine serologic monitoring of blood or egg yolk antibody is used in areas where AI has been a problem.  This effort provides early detection of an outbreak and permits other measures such as isolation and sanitation to be used early.

•    Reporting outbreaks to industry personnel who are in direct or indirect contact with poultry is necessary so that people can take appropriate measures

•    Voluntary isolation of infected flocks is the responsibility of the owner and is necessary to prevent transmission to other flocks.  (Often doing nothing is the single most important thing to reduce the spread of disease.)  Rigorous measures to prevent the contamination of and control the movement of people and equipment are required in order to stop this disease.

•    Different states and industries take different approaches to the next step.  Controlled marketing of flocks after they have recovered from infection is common in the turkey industry.  In some broiler producing states, voluntary destruction of infected flocks is encouraged.

•    Rescheduling flocks is necessary to make sure there is no active AI virus on the farm before another flock is placed.

•    Vaccines - Immunity is hemagglutinin subtype specific.  Because birds are susceptible to all 16 hemagglutinins preventive vaccination is not practical.  Once an outbreak occurs and the subtype is identified, however, vaccination is a tool that may be used to help bring the infection under control.  Because influenza viruses are unstable little research has been done on live influenza virus vaccines for poultry.  Only killed, injectable vaccines or recombinant vaccines are available and currently USDA controls use of H5 or H7 vaccines.

Hand sanitizer works

Low pathogenic H5 or H7  
H5 or H7 LPAI results in a response that varies according to the response plan developed by each state.  Generally all outbreaks of H5 or H7 LPAI will result in a rapid aggressive response, although the means that are used to bring it under control will vary according to species involved, density and the state plan.

•    Role of vaccines link

•    Swayne vaccine link

•    H7 vaccine in Netherlands

•    Asia control  PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza - Eurasia (77)  Les Sims

•    H7 vaccine

•    Minnesota H5/H7 avian influenza response plan

Highly Pathogenic H5 or H7 avian influenza

H5 or H7 HPAI in countries with a well-developed veterinary infrastructure results in a uniform response plan by animal health authorities (in the U.S. under the direction of the USDA APHIS VS) although there will be input from public health, occupational health and pollution control agencies.  In countries where this infrastructure is missing or where the disease is endemic it is possible that alternative control measures are more appropriate.

Composting carcasses

More information on treatment

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