AI outbreaks have occurred throughout the world. LPAI is common in large turkey-producing areas, particularly where semi-confinement or range-rearing is still widely practiced. Outbreaks are more sporadic in other areas of the United States. AI can occur in most, if not all, species of birds. In the United States, most outbreaks have been in turkeys. A few outbreaks have occurred in chickens. Humans, horses, pigs, and some wildlife species may be infected with influenza viruses, and a cycle between birds and swine exists.
A chicken outbreak of LPAI in 1983 mutated into HPAI in 1983-1984 resulting in a federal-state eradication program that required the depopulation of 17 million birds. Similar outbreaks of LPAI in Mexico in 1992 and Italy in 1999 also mutated into HPAI causing severe losses.
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