301F Veterinary ScienceBuilding
1971 Commonwealth Avenue
Saint Paul, MN 55108
phone: 612 626 5392
Ph.D., CornellUniversity, Ithaca, New York
Postdoctoral,University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California
Host immune and apoptotic responses to virus; host-pathogen interaction and systems biology; development of T lymphocytes
Ongoing projects in Dr. Xing's Laboratory
Profiling host responses in birds infected with avian influenza virus (AIV)
Host proinflammatory antiviral cytokines/chemokines are profiled in immune cells and respiratory tissues of chickens and ducks, which are the basis for avian influenza pathogenesis in birds. TNF family members are critical to AIV-induced apoptosis birds. Comparative analysis is performed in human bronchial epithelial cultures, indicating that mitochondria -cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic pathway is also involved in apoptosis in the host.
Determine underling mechanisms for pathogenesis in AIV-infected birds and human
Using NS1-deficient mutant viruses and specific inhibitors, we try to determine what roles NS1 plays in host immune and apoptotic responses in infected birds. We are able to decipher how mitogen antigen-activated (MAP) kinases, ERK, p38, and JNK1/2, are activated and involved in the regulation of viral replication, proinflammatory and antiviral responses and apoptosis in chicken immune cells.
Defining relevant chicken B lymphocyte epitopes in AIV
The identification of antibody or B lymphocyte epitopes in AIV hemagglutinin could be used to evaluate the rate and extent of antigenic drift occurring in vaccination programs. Vaccination has been in use to reduce symptoms of highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5N1 in Asia. Antigenic drift occurring in the Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses may arise by vaccination, which needs to be monitored now and in the future. This project will develop tools to evaluate the extent of the problem.
Deriving comprehensive and informative molecular signatures of AIV infection in birds using genomics platforms.
The overall objective is to identify molecular signatures of AIV-infected birds using microarray and proteomic approaches, and to correlate host responses and viral pathogenesis. Direct comparisons of gene expression profiles of chickens infected with wild type and mutant AIV strains are performed to explore the mechanism of the suggested immune suppression and the host-pathogen interactions.
Selected Recent Publications
Gao, W., W. Sun, B. Qu, C. J. Cardona, K. Powell, M. Wegner, Y. Shi, and Z. Xing. (2011). Distinct regulation of host responses by ERK and JNK MAP kinases in swine macrophages infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. PLoS One. In press.
Li, Y., H. Cao, N. Dao, Z. Luo, H, Yu, Y. Chen, Z. Xing, N. Baumgarth, C.J. Cardona, and X. Chen. (2011). High-throughput neuraminidase substrate specificity study of human and avian influenza A viruses. Virology. 415(1):12-19.
Qu, B., X. Li, W. Gao, W. Sun, Y. Jin, C. J. Cardona and Z. Xing. (2011). Human intestinal epithelial cells are susceptible to influenza virus subtype H9N2. Virus Research. 2011 Sep 22 [Epub ahead of print].
Xing, Z., R. Harper, J.D. Anunciacion, Z.Q. Yang, W.Gao, B.Qu, and C.J. Cardona. (2011). Host Immune and Apoptotic Responses to Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 in Human Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells. American Journal of Respiratory Cells & Molecular Biology. 44(1):24-33.
Xing, Z, C.J. Cardona, J.D. Anunciacion, S. Adams, N. Dao. (2010). Roles of the ERK MAP Kinase in the Regulation of Proinflammatory and Apoptotic Responses in Chicken Macrophages Infected with H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus.Journal of General Virology 91(Pt2):343-51.
Li J, zu Dohna H., Anchell N.L., Adams S.C., Dao NT, Xing Z, Cardona C.J. (2010). Adaptation and transmission of a duck-origin avian influenza virus in poultry species. Virus Research 147(1):40-6.
Xing, Z and C.J. Cardona. (2009). Preexisting immunity in human populations to novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(11):1847-9.
Adams, S., Z. Xing, J.L. Li, and C.J. Cardona. (2009). Immune-related Gene Expression in Response to H11N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chicken and Pekin Duck Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.Molecular Immunology 46(8-9): 1744-9.
Xing, Z., C. J. Cardona, P. Dao, S. Hietala, W. Boyce. (2008). Failure of the Standard Realtime RT-PCR Assay to Detect H7 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Wild Birds. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46(5):1844-6.
Li, J., C. J. Cardona, Z. Xing, P. R. Woolcock. (2008). Genetic and phenotypic characterization of an unusual low pathogenic avian influenza virus. Archives of Virology 153(10):1899-908.
Cardona, C. J., Z. Xing, C. E. Sandrock, C. E. Davis. (2008). Avian influenza in birds and animals. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 32(4): 255-73.
Xing, Z., E.M. Conway, C. Kang, A. Winoto. (2004). Essential Role of Survivin, an Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP), in T Cell Development, Maturation and Homeostasis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 199(1): 69-80.
David Chang, Xing, Z., Vanessa L. Capacio, Marcus E. Peter, Xiaolu Yang. (2003). Interdimer processing mechanism of procaspase-8 activation. EMBO Journal 22: 4132-4142.
Chang, D., Xing, Z., Pan, Y., Algeciras-Schimnich, A., Yaish-Ohad, S., Peter, M.E., Yang, X.L. (2002). c-FLIPL is a dual function regulator for caspase-8 activation and CD95-mediated apoptosis. EMBO Journal 21(14):3704-3714. (* These authors contributed equally to this work)
Xing, Z., and Schat, K.A. (2000). Inhibitory effect of nitric oxide and interferon-g on the replication of Marek's disease virus. Journal of Virology 74(8):3605-3612.
Xing, Z., and Schat, K.A. (2000). Analysis of the cytokine gene expressions in chicken embryo fibroblasts and splenocytes from Marek's disease virus-infected chickens. Immunology 100(1): 70