301F Veterinary ScienceBuilding
1971 Commonwealth Avenue
Saint Paul, MN 55108
phone: 612 626 5392
Ph.D., CornellUniversity, Ithaca, New York
Postdoctoral,University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California
Host immune and apoptotic responses to virus; host-pathogen interaction and systems biology; development of T lymphocytes
Ongoing projects in Dr. Xing's Laboratory
Profiling host responses in birds infected with avian influenza virus (AIV)
Host proinflammatory antiviral cytokines/chemokines are profiled in immune cells and respiratory tissues of chickens and ducks, which are the basis for avian influenza pathogenesis in birds. TNF family members are critical to AIV-induced apoptosis birds. Comparative analysis is performed in human bronchial epithelial cultures, indicating that mitochondria -cytochrome c-mediated intrinsic pathway is also involved in apoptosis in the host.
Determine underling mechanisms for pathogenesis in AIV-infected birds and human
Using NS1-deficient mutant viruses and specific inhibitors, we try to determine what roles NS1 plays in host immune and apoptotic responses in infected birds. We are able to decipher how mitogen antigen-activated (MAP) kinases, ERK, p38, and JNK1/2, are activated and involved in the regulation of viral replication, proinflammatory and antiviral responses and apoptosis in chicken immune cells.
Defining relevant chicken B lymphocyte epitopes in AIV
The identification of antibody or B lymphocyte epitopes in AIV hemagglutinin could be used to evaluate the rate and extent of antigenic drift occurring in vaccination programs. Vaccination has been in use to reduce symptoms of highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5N1 in Asia. Antigenic drift occurring in the Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses may arise by vaccination, which needs to be monitored now and in the future. This project will develop tools to evaluate the extent of the problem.
Deriving comprehensive and informative molecular signatures of AIV infection in birds using genomics platforms.
The overall objective is to identify molecular signatures of AIV-infected birds using microarray and proteomic approaches, and to correlate host responses and viral pathogenesis. Direct comparisons of gene expression profiles of chickens infected with wild type and mutant AIV strains are performed to explore the mechanism of the suggested immune suppression and the host-pathogen interactions.
Selected Recent Publications
Chi Y, Zhu Y, Wen T, Cui L, Ge Y, Jiao YJ, Wu T, Ge A, Ji H, Xu K, Bao CJ, Zhu Z, Qi X, Wu B, Shi ZY, Tang FY, Xing Z, Zhou MH. 2013. Cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with the novel H7N9 avian influenza A virus in China. Journal of Infectious Diseases. In press.
Xing Z*, Schefers J, Schwabenlander M, Jiao Y, Liang M, Qi X, et al. Novel bunyavirus in domestic and captive farmed animals, Minnesota, USA. 2013.
Emerging Infectious Diseases 19(9). doi: 10.3201/eid1909.130165. In press.
Niu G, Li J, Liang M, Jiang X, Jiang M, Yin H, Wang Z, Li C, Zhang Q, Jin C, Wang X, Ding S, Xing Z, Wang S, Bi Z, Li D. 2013. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus among domesticated animals, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19(5):756-63. doi: 10.3201/eid1905.120245.
Adams S, Xing Z, Li J, Mendoza K, Perez D, Reed K, Cardona C. 2013.
The effect of avian influenza virus NS1 allele on virus replication and innate gene expression in avian cells. Molecular Immunology 56(4):358-368.doi: 10.1016/j.molimm. PMID: 23911391
Chi C, Sun Q, Wang S, Zhang Z, Li X, Cardona CJ, Jin Y, Xing Z*. 2013. Robust antiviral responses to enterovirus 71 infection in human intestinal epithelial cells. Virus Research doi:pii: S0168-1702(13)00149-4. PMID:23685430
Qi X, Cui L, Jiao Y, Pan Y, Li X, Zu R, Huo X, Wu B, Tang F, Song Y, Zhou M, Wang H, Cardona CJ, Xing Z. 2013. Antigenic and genetic characterization of a European avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus from a boy in China in 2011. Archives of Virology 158(1):39-53. doi: 10.1007/s00705-012-1423-7. PMID:22935945
Qu B, Qi X, Wu X, Liang M, Li C, Cardona CJ, Xu W, Tang F, Li Z, Wu B, Powell K, Wegner M, Li D, Xing Z*. 2012. Suppression of the interferon and NF-κB responses by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. Journal of Virology 86(16):8388-401. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00612-12. PMID:22623799
Gao W, Sun W, Qu B, Cardona CJ, Powell K, Wegner M, Shi Y, Xing Z*. 2012. Distinct Regulation of Host Responses by ERK and JNK MAP Kinases in Swine Macrophages Infected with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus. PLoS One 2012;7(1):e30328. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030328. PMID:22279582
Qu BQ, Li X, Gao W, Sun WQ, Jin Y, Cardona CJ, Xing Z*. 2011. Human intestinal epithelial cells are susceptible to influenza virus subtype H9N2. Virus Research 163(1):151-9.
Li Y, Cao H, Dao N, Luo Z, Yu H, Chen Y, Xing Z, Baumgarth N, Cardona C, Chen X. 2011. High-throughput neuraminidase substrate specificity study of human and avian influenza A viruses. Virology 415(1):12-9.
Xing Z*, Harper R, Anunciacion J, Yang Z, Gao W, Qu B, Guan Y, Cardona CJ.
2011. Host immune and apoptotic responses to avian influenza virus H9N2 in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. American Journal of Respiratory Cell & Molecular Biology 44(1):24-33.
Xing Z*, Cardona CJ, Anunciacion JD, Adams SA, Dao D. 2010. Roles of the ERK MAP Kinase in the Regulation of Proinflammatory and Apoptotic Responses in Chicken Macrophages Infected with H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus. Journal of General Virology 91(2):343-51.
Xing Z* and Cardona CJ. 2009. Preexisting immunity in human populations to novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(11):1847-9. Featured in：www.reuters.com/.../us-flu-immunity-idUSTRE59D5QF20091014, www.upi.com/Health_News/...H1N1-flu/UPI-37991255970620/abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory?id=8830661 Adams S, Xing Z, Li JL, and Cardona CJ. 2009. Immune-related Gene Expression in Response to H11N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chicken and Pekin Duck Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Molecular Immunology 46(8-9): 1744-9.
Xing Z*, CJ Cardona, S Adams, ZQ. Yang, JL Li, D Perez and PR Woolcock. 2009. Differential Regulation of Antiviral and Proinflammatory Cytokines and Suppression of Fas-mediated Apoptosis by NS1 of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Chicken Macrophages. Journal of General Virology 90(5): 1109-18.
Xing Z*, CJ Cardona, JL Li, N Dao, T Tran, and J Andrada. 2008. Modulation of Adaptive Immune Responses in Chickens by Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus H9N2. Journal of General Virology 89(5): 88-99.
Xing Z*, CJ Cardona, P Dao, S Hietala, and W Boyce. 2008. Failure of the Standard Realtime RT-PCR Assay to Detect H7 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Wild Birds. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46(5):1844-6.
Xing Z., EM Conway, C Kang, and A Winoto. 2004. Essential Role of Survivin, an Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP), in T Cell Development, Maturation and Homeostasis. Journal of Experimental Medicine 199(1): 69-80.
Commented as News Highlight by Lucy Bird. 2004. T-Cell Development: Survivin against the Odds. Nature Reviews Immunology 4(3):166-167. http://www.nature.com/nri/ Highlighted as News and Views by Jamie D. Wilson. 2004. Survivin Development. Nature Immunology 5(2): 131. http://www.nature.com/ni/
Chang D, Xing Z, Capacio VL, Peter ME, and Yang XL. 2003. Interdimer processing mechanism of procaspase-8 activation. EMBO Journal 22: 4132-4142.
Chang D,* Xing Z,*Pan Y, Algeciras-Schimnich A, Yaish-Ohad S, Peter, ME, and Yang XL. 2002. (*equal contribution) c-FLIPL is a dual function regulator for caspase-8 activation and CD95-mediated apoptosis. EMBO Journal 21(14):3704-3714.
Xing Z and Schat KA. 2000. Inhibitory effect of nitric oxide and interferon-gamma on the replication of Marek’s disease virus. Journal of Virology 74(8):3605-3612.
Xing Z and Schat KA. 2000. Analysis of the cytokine gene expressions in chicken embryo fibroblasts and splenocytes from Marek’s disease virus-infected chickens. Immunology 100(1): 70-76.
Zheng C, Xing Z, Bian ZC, Guo C, Akbay A, Warner L, and Guan JL. 1998. Differential regulation of Pyk2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The C-terminal domain of FAK confers response to cell adhesion. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273(4):2384-2389.
Xing Z, Chen HC, Nowlen J, Taylor SJ, Shalloway D, and Guan JL. 1994. Direct interaction of v-src with the focal adhesion kinase mediated by the Src SH2 domain. Molecular Biology of Cell 5: 413-421.
Xing Z and Whitton JL. 1993. An Anti-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus ribozyme expressed in tissue culture cells diminishes viral RNA levels and leads to a reduction in infectious virus yield. Journal of Virology 67(4):1840-1847.
Xing Z and Whitton JL. 1992. Ribozymes which cleave arenavirus RNAs: identification of susceptible target sites, and inhibition by target site secondary structure.
Journal of Virology 66:1361-1369.